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États-Unis – Bibliographie

Heureusement, les historiens peuvent puiser leurs informations dans les nombreux articles et documents primaires et secondaires écrits en anglais et en français, et qui permettent de rechercher l’impact perçu des plans du Premier consul Bonaparte sur la politique étrangère américaine. Plusieurs de ces sources peuvent aisément être trouvées dans la bibliothèque principale de l’université de l’État de Kent, par le biais des prêts interbibliothèques, et dans des collections en ligne telles que American Memory Project  et le site Internet The Avalon Project . Ces sources, qui vont d’articles de journaux, aux interventions de Jefferson lui-même, peuvent être utilisées pour comprendre la perspective américaine sur les événements qui se sont produits de 1800 à 1803, alors que d’autres livres, qui comportent des lettres de Bonaparte, peuvent être employés pour saisir la perspective française. En outre, un assortiment de sources secondaires existent, y compris celles qui concernent les réactions de l’Amérique aux plans de Bonaparte; ce sont par exemple : 

Thomas Fleming – Napoléon’s Invasion of North America: Aedes aegypti takes a holiday, 1802 dans What If? 2: Eminent Historians Imagine What Might Have Been,

Paul Fregosi : Dreams of Empire: Napoleon and the First World War 1792-1815,

Lawrence S. Kaplan : Jefferson and France; an essay on politics and political ideas

ainsi que bien d’utres sources. [1] 

Bien que les chercheurs aient écrits de nombreux travaux sur Thomas Jefferson, l’achat de la Louisiane, et Napoléon Bonaparte, les historiens de cette période ont généralement négligé comment les plans de Bonaparte ont influencé la politique étrangère réellement américaine, se concentrant au contraire sur d’autres motivations se dissimulant derrière le transfert territorial. Dans “Napoléon’s Invasion of North America: Aedes aegypti takes a holiday, 1802,” Thomas Fleming discute d’abord quelques faits passionnants sur des plans irréalisés Bonaparte. Puis, Fleming fait un exposé circonstancié de ce qui a pu se passer, prêtant l’attention aux perspectives françaises et américaines. Dans  Dreams of Empire: Napoleon and the First World War 1792-1815, Paul Fregosi tente de démontrer comment les ambitions de Bonaparte ont affecté le monde entier militairement. Fregosi consacre des chapitres de son livre à l’acquisition de la Louisiane, aux plans de Bonaparte concernant ces territoires et à sa vente aux États-Unis. Dans Jefferson and France: An Essay on Politics and Political Ideas, Laurent S. Kaplan se concentre sur le personnage américains clé de cette époque, Thomas Jefferson, et sur ses idées et sa politique concernant la France. Kaplan traite ainsi de façon substantielle la personnalité derrière l’homme politique politique. The Louisiana Purchase,, édité par Peter J. Kastor, va plus loin en proposant dix articles qui donnent diverses interprétations de l’achat de la Louisiane parmi les américain du nord. Dans son article :  “Dehahuit and the Question of Change in North America” , Kastor aborde le côté américain indigène de l’achat de la Louisiane Purchase [2]. En revanche, Robert E. Bonner  en discute la perspective noire [3]   Se concentrant sur l’aspect diplomatique de l’achat de la Louisiane, Peter S. Onuf suggère que la plupart des historiens diplomatiques regardent avec découragement les efforts de Jefferson et se considèrent la défaite de l’armée de Bonaparte en Haïti comme cause des succès de Jefferson. [4]  Sanford Levinson rétrécie encore plus son approche, en traitant de la constitutionnalité du transfert.[5]  Bien que ces articles apparaissent fascinant et utile pour la compréhension des nombreux aspects de l’achat de la Louisiane, un lecteur déjà versé dans ce sujet notera quelqudéfauts. Par exemple, Levinson et James R. Sofka font référence, tous les deux, à Napoléon, de façon erronée, comme étant l’empereur Napoléon, avant l’achat de la Louisiane en 1803, alors qu’en réalité le Sénat français n’a conféré ce titre à Bonaparte qu’en 1804.[6] . Quoiqu’il en soit, les articles figurant dans le livre de Kastor servent un but essentiellement valable, en particulier l’article de Betty Houchin Winfield “Public Perception and Public Events: The Louisiana Purchase and the American Partisan Press.”. Cet article vient en contre-point de celui de  Jerry W. Knudson, “Newspaper Reaction to the Louisiana Purchase: ‘This New, Immense, Unbounded World », car les deux  se concentrent sur les réactions des journaux, contiennent des citations de sources primaires, et montrent ce que l’américain typique éduqué a pu percevoir durant cette époque turbulente de cette époque de l’histoire de l’Amérique..[7]

Dans leur ensemble, ces sources révèlent l’influence des plans de Bonaparte sur l’Amérique du nord sur la politique étrangère des États-Unis. Par conséquent, mis ensemble, le contenu des travaux par des chercheurs plus anciens montrent comment le rêve de Bonaparte de créer une nouvelle Nouvelle France, comprenant le territoire de la Louisiane et les diverses îles en mer des Caraïbes, a entraîné la crainte parmi les Américains qu’ils lutteraient bientôt contre leur vieil allié de la guerre de l’indépendance. En outre, certains aspects clés des sources existantes aideront à démontrer comment le rêve de Bonaparte a provoqué un profond désir, au sein de l’administration de Thomas Jefferson, d’au moins acquérir, de la France, la ville de la Nouvelle-Orléans et limiter ainsi la puissance française en Amérique du Nord

Primary Works Cited

Adams, John.  “Fourth Annual Message.”  The Avalon Project: Quasi War with France 1791-1800.  New Haven: Yale Law School, 1997. http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/presiden/sou/adamsme4.htm#france.

Adams, John.  “Message to the Senate and House of Representatives, February 5, 1798, Regarding a French Privateer.”  The Avalon Project: Quasi War with France 1791-1800. http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/quasi.htm.  31 December 1969.

Adams, John.  “Special Message to the Senate an the House of Representatives, May 16, 1797.”  The Avalon Project: Quasi War with France 1791-1800. http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/quasi.htm.  31 December 1969.

Bonaparte, Napoleon.  “Letter to General Leclerc, July 1, 1802.”  The Mind of Napoleon.  Ed. J. Christopher Herold.  New York: Oxford University Press, 1961.  189.

“Convention of 1800.”  The Avalon Project: Quasi War with France 1791-1800. http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/quasi.htm.  31 December 1969.

“Convention of 1800: Text of the Treaty.” France: Convention of 1800. New Haven: Yale Law School, 1997. http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/diplomacy/france/fr1800.htm.

Hamilton, Alexander.  “Alexander Hamilton on the French Revolution.”  Liberty, Equality, Fraternity: Exploring the French Revolution.  Eds.  Jack R. Censer and Lynn Hunt.   University Park: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 2001.  194-196.

Hamilton, Alexander.  “Alexander Hamilton on the Louisiana Purchase.”  The Louisiana Purchase.  Ed. Peter J. Kastor.  Washington: CQ Press, 2002.  168-172.

Jefferson, Thomas.  “Letter from Thomas Jefferson to James Madison, March 19, 1803.”  The Louisiana Purchase.  Ed. Peter J. Kastor.  Washington: CQ Press, 2002.  183.

Jefferson, Thomas.  “Letter from Thomas Jefferson to Robert R. Livingston, April 18, 1802.”  The Louisiana Purchase.  Ed. Peter J. Kastor.  Washington: CQ Press, 2002.  161-162.

Jefferson, Thomas.  “Message to the Senate of October 17, 1803 Regarding the Louisiana Purchase.”  The Avalon Project: The Louisiana Purchase; 1803.  New Haven: Yale Law School, 1997.   http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/presiden/messages/tj004.htm.

Jefferson, Thomas.  “Second Annual Message to Congress.”  The Avalon Project: The Louisiana Purchase; 1803.  New Haven: Yale Law School, 1997.  http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/presiden/sou/jeffmes2.htm.

Jefferson, Thomas.  “Third Annual Message to Congress.”  The Avalon Project: The Louisiana Purchase; 1803.  New Haven: Yale Law School, 1997.  http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/presiden/sou/jeffmes3.htm.

Jefferson, Thomas.  “Thomas Jefferson on the French Revolution.”  Liberty, Equality, Fraternity: Exploring the French Revolution.  Eds.  Jack R. Censer and Lynn Hunt.  University Park: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 2001.  192-193.

Jefferson, Thomas.  “To John Langdon.”  The Writings of Thomas Jefferson.  Ed. H. A. Washington.  Washington: United States Congress, 1853-54.  512.

Jefferson, Thomas.  “To Samuel Adams, February 1800.”  The Writings of Thomas Jefferson.  Ed. Paul Leicester Ford.  New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1892-99.  425.

King, Rufus.  “To the Secretary of State, June 1, 1801.”  American State Papers: Foreign Affairs 2: 509-510.

King, Rufus.  “To the Secretary of State, November 20, 1801.”  American State Papers: Foreign Affairs 2: 511-512.

Livingston, Robert R.  “Letter from Robert R. Livingston to James Madison, November 10, 1802.”  The Louisiana Purchase.  Ed. Peter J. Kastor.  Washington: CQ Press, 2002.  164-165.

Livingston, Robert R. and James Monroe.  “Letter from Robert R. Livingston and James Monroe to James Madison, May 13, 1803.”  The Louisiana Purchase.  Ed. Peter J. Kastor.  Washington: CQ Press, 2002.  183-187.

Madison, James.  “Letter from James Madison to Carlos Martinez de Yrujo, November 25, 1802.”  The Louisiana Purchase.  Ed. Peter J. Kastor.  Washington: CQ Press, 2002.  164.

Madison, James.  “Letter from James Madison to Robert R. Livingston and James Monroe, March 2, 1803.”  The Louisiana Purchase.  Ed. Peter J. Kastor. Washington: CQ Press, 2002.  173-182.

Pinckney, Charles.  “Letter from Charles Pinckney to James Madison, May 4, 1803.”  The Louisiana Purchase. Ed. Peter J. Kastor.  Washington: CQ Press, 2002.  167-168.

“Provision for Claims of Citizens of the United States on the Government of France.”  The Avalon Project: The Louisiana Purchase; 1803.  New Haven: Yale Law School, 1997.   http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/statutes/2us247.htm.

“The United States Instrument of Ratification; February 18, 1801.”  France: Convention of 1800.  New Haven: Yale Law School, 1997.  http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/diplomacy/france/fr1800a.htm.

“Treaty of San Ildefonso: October 1, 1800.”  The Avalon Project: The Louisiana Purchase; 1803.  New Haven: Yale Law School, 1997.  http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/ildefens.htm.

Washington, George Washington.  “Message to the Senate of January 17, 1791 Transmitting a Letter from the King of France.”  The Avalon Project: Quasi War with France 1791-1800.  http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/quasi.htm, 31 December 1969.

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Fernandez, Mark.  “Edward Livingston and the Problem of Law.”  The Louisiana Purchase.  Ed. Peter J. Kastor.  Washington: CQ Press, 2002.  90-104.

Fleming, Thomas.  “Napoléon’s Invasion of North America: Aedes aegypti takes a holiday, 1802.”  What If? 2: Eminent Historians Imagine What Might Have Been.  Ed. Robert Cowley.  New York: Berkley Books, 2002.  134-151.

Fregosi, Paul.  Dreams of Empire: Napoleon and the First World War 1792-1815.  New York:   Carol Publishing Group, 1990.

Geer, Curtis M.  The Louisiana Purchase and the Westward Movement.  Philadelphia: 1904.

Gitlin, Jay.  “Children of Empire or Concitoyens?  Louisiana’s French Inhabitants.”  The Louisiana Purchase.  Ed. Peter J. Kastor.  Washington: CQ Press, 2002.  23-37.

Haythornthwaite, Philip J.  The Napoleonic Sourcebook.  London: Arms and Armour Press, 1990.

Kaplan, Lawrence S.  Jefferson and France; an essay on politics and political ideas.  New Haven: Yale University Press, 1967.

Kastor, Peter J.  “Dehahuit and the Question of Change in North America.”  The Louisiana Purchase.  Ed. Peter J. Kastor.  Washington: CQ Press, 2002.  74-89.

Kastor, Peter J., ed.  The Louisiana Purchase.  Washington: CQ Press, 2002.

Knudson, Jerry W.  “Newspaper Reaction to the Louisiana Purchase: ‘This New, Immense, Unbounded World.’”  Missouri Historical Review.  63, 2 (1969).  182-213.

Levinson, Sanford.  “The Louisiana Purchase as Seminal Constitutional Event.”  The Louisiana Purchase.  Ed. Peter J. Kastor.  Washington: CQ Press, 2002.  105-116.

Lewis Jr., James E.  “The Burr Conspiracy and the Problem of Western Loyalty.”  The Louisiana Purchase.  Ed. Peter J. Kastor.  Washington: CQ Press, 2002.  64-73.

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Onuf, Peter S.  “The Louisiana Purchase and American Federalism.”  The Louisiana Purchase.  Ed. Peter J. Kastor.  Washington: CQ Press, 2002.  117-128.

Pope, Stephen.  Dictionary of the Napoleonic Wars.  London: Cassell, 1999.

Sofka, James R.  “Thomas Jefferson and the Problem of World Politics.”  The Louisiana Purchase.  Ed. Peter J. Kastor.  Washington: CQ Press, 2002.  51-63.

Trees, Andrew.  “Building a New Nation: American Politics in a Revolutionary Age.”  The Louisiana Purchase.  Ed. Peter J. Kastor.  Washington: CQ Press, 2002.  11-22.

Vadeboncoeur, Guy.  “The Nelson Monument, Montreal.”  Napoleon.  Bernard Chevallier, ed.  Montreal: David M. Stewart Museum, 1999.  189.

Winfield, Betty Houchin.  “Public Perception and Public Events: The Louisiana Purchase and the American Partisan Press.”  The Louisiana Purchase.  Ed. Peter J. Kastor. Washington: CQ Press, 2002.  38-50.

Primary Works Consulted

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Adams, John.  “Message to the Senate of March 2, 1801 Regarding Ratification of the Convention of with France.”  France: Convention of 1800.  New Haven: Yale Law School, 1997.  http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/presiden/messages/ja01-01.htm.

Adams, John.  “Proclamation of May 9, 1800 Regarding Remission of Prohibitions on Certain Ports.”  The Avalon Project: Quasi War with France 1791-1800.  New Haven: Yale Law School, 1997. http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/presiden/proclamations/japroc03.htm.

Adams, John.  “Proclamation of September 6, 1800 Regarding Remission of Prohibitions on Certain Ports.”  The Avalon Project: Quasi War with France 1791-1800.  New Haven: Yale Law School, 1997. http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/presiden/proclamations/japroc05.htm.

“An Act for Laying And Collecting Duties or Imports and Tonnage within the Territories Ceded to the United States, by the Treaty of the Thirtieth of April, One Thousand Eight Hundred and Three, Between the United States and the French Republic, and for Other Purposes.”  The Avalon Project: The Louisiana Purchase; 1803.  New Haven: Yale Law School, 1997. http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/statutes/1803-01.htm.

“An Act Further to Suspend the Commercial Intercourse Between the United States and France, and the Dependencies Thereof.”  The Avalon Project: Quasi War with France 1791-1800.  New Haven: Yale Law School, 1997. http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/statutes/qw07.htm.

“Authority Given to the President to Take Possession of the Territory of Louisiana.”  The Avalon Project: The Louisiana Purchase; 1803.  New Haven: Yale Law School, 1997. http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/statutes/2us245.htm.

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Bonaparte, Napoleon.  “To King Jerome of Westphalia.”  Western Civilization.  Ed. Jackson J.  Spielvogel.  St. Paul: West Publishing Company, 1997.  699-700.ty Press, 2001.  166-167.

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Jefferson, Thomas.  “Fourth Annual Message to Congress.”  The Avalon Project: The Louisiana Purchase; 1803.  New Haven: Yale Law School, 1997.  http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/presiden/sou/jeffmes4.htm.

Jefferson, Thomas.  “Message to the Senate and House of January 16, 1804.”  The Avalon Project: The Louisiana Purchase; 1803.  New Haven: Yale Law School, 1997.  http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/presiden/messages/tj006.htm.

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“Louisiana Purchase: Second Convention.”  The Avalon Project: The Louisiana Purchase; 1803.  New Haven: Yale Law School, 1997. http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/diplomacy/france/louis3.htm.

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Marshall, John.  “Opinion by John Marshall.”  100 Key Documents in American Democracy.  Ed. Peter B. Levy.  Westport: Praeger Publishers, 1999.  77-81.

Prefect of the Haute-Garonne.  “A Prefect in Action (1800-1801).”  Liberty, Equality, Fraternity: Exploring the French Revolution.  Eds.  Jack R. Censer and Lynn Hunt.  University Park: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 2001.  162-163.

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Remusat, Madame de.  “Memoirs: Napoleon’s Appeal.”  Western Civilization: Sources, Images, and Integrations, Volume II: Since 1660.  Ed. Dennis Scherman.  New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000.  101-102.

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Staël-Holstein, Madame la Baronne de.  “Considérations sur les principaux événemens de la Révolution française.”  Napoleon and his Times: Selected Interpretations.  Eds. Frank A. Kafker and James M. Laux.  Malabar: Robert E. Krieger Publishing Company, 1989.  18.

“Stock to be Created to Carry into Effect the Treaty with the French Republic.”  The Avalon Project: The Louisiana Purchase; 1803.  New Haven: Yale Law School, 1997.  http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/statutes/2us245a.htm.

“The French Civil Code (1804).”  Liberty, Equality, Fraternity: Exploring the French Revolution.              Eds.  Jack R. Censer and Lynn Hunt.  University Park: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 2001.  166-167.

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Kafker, Frank A. and James M. Laux, eds.  Napoleon and His Times: Selected Interpretations.  Malabar: Robert E. Krieger Publishing Company, 1989.

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Wilson-Smith, Timothy.  Napoleon: Man of War, Man of Peace.  New York:  Carroll & Graf Publishers, 2002.


NOTES

[1] Fleming; Fregosi; Kaplan.

[2] Peter J. Kastor, “Dehahuit and the Question of Change in North America” in The Louisiana Purchase, edited by Peter J. Kastor (Washington: CQ Press, 2002), 74-87.

[3] Bonner 129-137.

[4] Onuf 118-119.

[5] Levinson 105-114.

[6] Levinson 111; Sofka 58.

[7] Knudson 182-213; Winfield 38-50.